VIRUSES AND OBESITY: The interesting thing about Ad-36 (and also Ad-37) is that they have been implicated in the human obesity epidemic. In some studies those who had a high BMI (Body Mass Index) were five times more likely to have antibodies to Ad-36 than those who were not obese. The increased adiposity seems to be seen along with a decrease in blood levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. This virus seems to target preadipocytes (or early lipoblasts) causing increased differentiation and fat storage. See a recent article (featuring our image!).
Adenovirus 36 (Ad-36) are small icosahedral viruses with characteristic fibres (fibers) radiating from the 12 vertices of their icosahedral capsids. These fibres are used in viral attachment to the host cells. They belong to the D species (previously known as subgroup D adenoviruses).
In this computer graphic, the translucent yellow outer layer represents the viral hexon proteins (arranged as an icosahedral capsid). At the twelve vertices lie the pentons (purple) from which radiate the fibers (blue). The red inner ball represents the double stranded DNA genome (viral genes). The virus particles are shown entering from upper right and arcing down towards the yellowish globular fat cells. The small blue cell at bottom left represents a preadipocyte.
REFERENCES relating to the implication of Adenoviruses in obesity:
Transmissibility of adenovirus-induced adiposity in a chicken model. NV Dhurandhar, BA Israel, JM Kolesar, G Mayhew, ME Cook and RL Atkinson. International Journal of Obesity (2001) 25, 990-996
A Human Adenovirus Enhances Preadipocyte Differentiation. Sharada D. Vangipuram, Jonathan Sheele, Richard L. Atkinson, Thomas C. Holland, and Nikhil V. Dhurandhar. OBESITY RESEARCH Vol. 12 No. 5 May 2004.
Adipogenic human adenovirus-36 reduces leptin expression and secretion and increases glucose uptake by fat cells. SD Vangipuram, M Yu, J Tian, KL Stanhope, M Pasarica1, PJ Havel, AR Heydari and NV Dhurandhar. International Journal of Obesity (2007) 31, 87-96
Virus-induced obesity. Frank Greenway Am J Physiol Regulatory Integrative Comp Physiol. 290:188-189, 2006.
Infectobesity: Obesity of Infectious Origin. Nikhil V. Dhurandhar. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:2794S-2797S.
Human Adenovirus Ad-36 Promotes Weight Gain in Male Rhesus and Marmoset Monkeys. Nikhil V. Dhurandhar, Leah D. Whigham, David H. Abbott, Nancy J. Schultz-Darken, Barbara A. Israel, Steven M. Bradley, Joseph W. Kemnitz, David B. Allison and Richard L. Atkinson. J. Nutr. 132:3155-3160, October 2002
Adipogenic potential of multiple human adenoviruses in vivo and in vitro in animals. Leah D. Whigham, Barbara A. Israel, and Richard L. Atkinson. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290: R190-R194, 2006.
VIRAL OBESITY IMAGE # 1: Adenovirus Ad-36 and preadipocyte & adipocytes (fat cells) on a green background suggestive of adipose tissue. This virus had been implicated in the human obesity epidemic. Web image measures 500 pixels across, original image is 5660 x 8000 pixels.
VIRAL OBESITY IMAGE # 2: Adenovirus Ad-36 and preadipocyte & adipocytes (fat cells) on blue. This virus had been implicated in the human obesity epidemic. Web image measures 500 pixels across, original image is 5660 x 8000 pixels.
VIRAL OBESITY IMAGE # 3: Adenovirus Ad-36 and preadipocyte & adipocytes (fat cells) on black. This virus had been implicated in the human obesity epidemic. Web image measures 500 pixels across, original image is 5660 x 8000 pixels.